Zero Budget Natural Farming Ponds
The ideal farm pond should be dug into the ground in a naturally low-lying area. Some of the soil that is removed can be used to construct an earthen berm around the pond, which should be planted with trees and grasses for stability. The shade and wind protection provided by the raised mound and vegetation will reduce evaporative losses.
Greater depth of the pond and less surface area will also reduce evaporative losses. However, digging deeper than 5 meters will increase the expense of the digging, and increase seepage loss due to increased water pressure on the ground. A pond that is about 10 meters by 10 meters and 3 meters deep is an ideal size. The pond should have an inlet and an outlet (as shown in the picture) lined with rock to prevent erosion. These features will need to be linked into a larger drainage plan which directs water into the pond, and receives any overflow water. A small settling pit at the inlet will help remove silt, and can be more easily cleaned than the whole pond. The sides of the pond should be sloped for stability.
The pond should be sized to hold about 50% of maximum runoff, so that it will fill up even in a dry year. Maximum runoff can be calculated by considering rainfall intensity and duration, watershed area, and slope, soil type, and land-use throughout the watershed. A rough estimate is that a 1 hectare watershed in red soil can yield 250 cubic meters of water, which is enough to fill the pond shown in the picture on the previous page. Individuals with some expertise in hydrology can develop such rules of thumb relevant to the physical characteristics of particular regions.
Another question is whether the pond will be discharging or recharging. If the pond is higher in the watershed and / or the soil is permeable, it may function more as a percolation pit than as a pond. If the pond is lower in the watershed and the water table is high, it may naturally fill with ground-water. It is important to decide whether the goal is to facilitate infiltration of water, or to maintain surface water in the pond, which can be easily accessed for water needs. In the latter case, it may be necessary to line the pond to reduce permeability. Possible linings include: clay, bentonite, stone or brick, cement, rubber, plastic, etc. If a farm pond maintains water for 80 percent of the year it can also be used for raising fish.
Usually, during the rainy season, the ponds get filled to the brim. The water is lost due to seepage and evaporation as well as pond wall destabilization which makes the mud fall into the pond thereby reducing the storage capacity.
To effectively control the issues pointed out, the following techniques can be applied.
Placing clay at the bottom as well as on the walls of the pond will reduce seepage
Introducing the following plants in the pond will reduce the evaporation
- White Lotus
- Red Lotus
- Water LilyThe above plants will cover the entire surface of the pond and this way it will reduce the evaporation to the maximum extent.
Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) can be planted on the bunds / wall of the ponds which will ensure the soil does not erode/fall into the pond
1. When rain comes allow water in ponds about 3 to 5 inches using tractor make plough in water three to 5 times.automatic clay will form in pond. It depends on soil type
2. Also plant Gooseberry on bank it’s root will suck the sourness of the water and make the water tasty. Palm tree helps to take rainwater and increase ground water level.