Aloevera Cultivation

Aloevera (Aloe barbadensis) is a popular medicinal plant. It belongs to liliaceae family. It is a perennial plant, growing to the hight of 1½ – 2½ ft. Its leaves are long and thick, juicy with a wheel like phylotaxy. The two sides of the leaves have thorny structure with a thorny tip. The inner substance of the leaves is jelly like, with bad odour and bitter in taste. The length of the leaves ranges from 25-30 cm., while the breadth ranges from 3-5 cm. Normally it flowers during October to January and the long inflorescence has a large number of small pink flowers all around. Fruits are developed during February to April. It is normally not propagated through seeds. Vegetative propagation is easy and convenient. Of late, because of sky rocketing price of allopathic medicines with its known side effects, medicinal plants and ayurvedic medicines are becoming popular. World trade worth about 80 million US$ dollars exists now and this is likely to increase by 35-40 percent within 5 years. USA dominates the market (65%) while India and China have a share of 10 percent each which could be enhanced by its commercial cultivation.

Soil and Climate
Aloe vera is found to grow in hot humid and high rainfall conditions. It is grown in all kind of soils but well drained soil with high organic matter, is most suitable. It grows well in bright sun light. Shady conditions results in disease infestation It is highly sensitive to water stagnation. Therefore, well drained high land should be selected for its cultivation. A rainfall ranging from 1000 – 1200 mm is ideal for aloevera cultivation. Seedling Preparation and Planting Since it is difficult to grow aloevera from seeds, seedlings are normally raised from roots of the plants. Sucker itself can be used as seedlings as in Banana. Rainy season is ideal for sucker plantation. A spacing of 1.5 x 1 ft, 1 ft x 2 ft or 2 ft x 2 ft is followed. Land Preparation About 2-3 ploughings and laddering are done to make the soil weed free and friable. Land leveling is then followed. Along the slope, 15-20 ft apart drainage are made.

Application of Plant Nutrients
Before land preparation, about 8-10 tonnes FYM/ ha is applied. Before the last ploughing, 35 kg N, 70 kg P 20 5, and 70 kg K2 0/ha are added. For controlling termites, 350-400 kg Neem Cake / ha may be applied . In September – October about 35-40 kg N as top dressing may be applied. If the soil is rich in organic matter, N dose can be reduced.

Irrigation and Interculture
After 40 days or so weeding and earthing up are done. Earthing up is also practiced after top dressing of fertiliser. Aloe vera is slightly tolerant to drought, but very sensitive to water stagnation. Therefore, proper drainage is more important than irrigation. As per need light irrigation during drought is enough.

Plant Protection
Aloe vera is infested by various insets and pests. Special care is needed for their control in medicinal plants like aloevera where the juice of the leaves are directly taken as medicine. Clean cultivation, interculture operation, regular and need based irrigation, application of adeguate organic manure, treatment of suker before planting, and cultivation of aloevera in sunny conditions are conducive for healthy growth of the aloe vera crop. Use of organic source of plant protection materials like raw garlic juice, neem oil (10,000 ppm) 2-3 ml / lit, tobacco extractant 20 ml / lit gave reasonably good result.

Yield
Harvesting of leaves starts after 7-8 months of planting. Sharp knife is used for harvesting. Care has to be taken to reduce the loss of juice from the cut portion. If harvesting is done once in a year, October – November are the best period for harvesting. Second year gives maximum yield and for about 4-5 years good yield could be harvested . After harvesting leaves are dried in shade and then in sun before storages. Flowers are collected in December – January and preserved after proper drying. Yearly 100 – 115 quintals raw leaves and 350 – 400 kg flowers / ha are obtained (3).

Medicinal Quality
Both the juice of leaves and flowers are used as medicine, but medicines are prepared from leaves. Intake of juice of leave, improves hunger, and helps in digestion. Juice when mixed with sugar cures cough and cold. Besides these, it also cures nervous weakness, asthma, Jaundice, etc. The leaf flesh (about 7-Sg) mixed with honey, taken in morning and evening cures constipation. Besides, it is good medicine for many other diseases.

It contains various organic compounds which ci1res diseases. Of these, the main use is aloine. Besides, these it contains 12 types of vitamin, 20 kinds of amino acids, 20 kinds of minerals, 200 different types of polysaccharides, and various kinds of glycol- protein which are used for human health. Alaine A, and Alaine B, are principles of the ayurvedic medicine (3).

Economics
Expenditure to be incurred for Aloe vera cultivation normally amounts to about Rs.1,10,000 / ha. The expected income with a yield of about 110 – 115 quintal would be about Rs. 340,000/ha. The net profit would be about Rs.230,000 /ha/year. In addition to monetary benefit, social benefit would be anormous. Better management can results in much higher income and net profit.

Vrikshayurveda is the ancient Indian science of plant life, a body of knowledge that has been systematically compiled in the form of 325 Sanskrit slokas in a text named VRIKSHAYURVEDA by Surapala approximately 1000 years ago..

Surapala lived and worked in Bundelkhand in central India, and under the royal patronage of King Bhimapala he carried out his various experiments in horticulture and botany. His text was forgotten and the knowledge he had painstakingly compiled fell into oblivion for several centuries. Dr. Y.L. Nene, Chairman, Asian Agri History Foundation obtained a copy of Surapala’s manuscript from the Bodlein library in Oxford and had it translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. Nalini Sadhale. This translation was released in 1996 and a Hindi translation by Dr. S.L. Choudhary was released in 2003.

Surapala deals with various subjects such as planting a garden, importance of various trees; collection, examination and treatment of seeds; selection of suitable land, soil characteristics, digging of planting pits, different methods of irrigation, plant nutrition, fertilizers, diseases of trees and their treatment, the wonders of horticulture, plant conservation, underground water resources etc. Surapala lived and wrote a millennium ago when chemical fertilizers and pesticides were unknown. Plant diseases and pests had to be dealt with by natural means available to the farmers and gardeners, utilizing the locally available materials. Our own experiments with the recipes described by Surapala and formulation of new recipes keeping in mind the basic principles enunciated by him have yielded magnificent results in the past decade.

Surapala describes and praises a fertilizer cum natural pesticide made from fish and animal waste called KUNAPA JAL. This fertilizer was made and applied in the tea gardens of Assam, Darjeeling, dooars and the Nilgiris and in the coffee estates of Karnataka. What emerged was nothing short of miraculous. Various pest such as red spider mite and helopeltis which the tea gardens were unable to eliminate using chemical methods, were eliminated effortlessly with kunapa jal within a few months. Moreover, the tea bushes produced more green leaf and the fertility of the soil also increased as indicated by the return of earthworms in the soil. Laboratory soil tests showed that pesticide residues had been eliminated from the soil of these gardens within 4-6 months of steady and regular application of kunapa jal and other liquid manures.

Why liquid manures?

Liquid Organic Manure PreparationGrowers both big and small want fast results today and a quick monetary return on their investment. But with the prevailing methods of organic cultivation, it takes a few years to enrich the soil, eliminate pesticide residues and obtain good crops using vermicompost, farmyard manure and the like. Many farmers do not wish to switch to organic cultivation for this reason alone as they do not have the patience to wait for a few years. Moreover, many fear a drop in their farm production while they are converting to organic methods. This means reduced income and very few are brave enough to go through this phase of austerity before they can finally taste the fruits of their labour. In this context, the liquid manures advocated by vrikshayurveda especially kunapa jal and sasyagavya will work wonders if prepared and applied regularly to their fields by these growers. Liquid manures can be sprayed easily after being diluted with water and most are ready for field application within three to twenty days in the climate of the northeast. The conversion to organic production can be made smoothly by growers if they adopt these methods wholeheartedly and give up the use of chemicals totally.
Ingredients used in liquid manures

Kunapa jal uses fish and animal waste and mustard oilcake; sasyagavya uses green weeds and cowdung; amritapani uses cowdung and jaggery; bhasmapani uses wood ash and cow urine; jaivik tika uses cowdung and cow urine; agnihotra bhasma is the ash obtained after performing agnihotra havan. All these manures can be made in simple plastic buckets or plastic drums or in cement tanks. The ingredients used in these manures are available locally and cheaply in the northeast. Most of these manures take from three to twenty days to be ready for field application., only kunapa jal takes between 45-60 days to be ready in the plains. In comparison vermicompost takes three months to be ready for field application and farmyard manure takes about a year’s time to be ready. Vrikshayurveda methods are thus suitable for today’s fast paced agriculture and horticulture.